Australia: The Land Where Time Began

A biography of the Australian continent 

Climate Climate cycles     Climate in Aboriginal Australia     RealClimate: Climate Science    from Climate Scientists

Climate models agree things will get bad. Capturing just how bad is tricky

Australia is the driest continent on Earth (if Antarctica is excluded because its millions of tonnes of water are in the form of ice or snow). Its climate is very erratic, often moving from one extreme directly to the other. It can have years of drought that is broken by devastating floods. This erratic climate has been found to be influenced very strongly by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) atmosphere-ocean system and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD).

It has been said that the only thing predictable about the climate of the arid areas of Australia, Ύ of the continent, is that it is unpredictable. In such a place the very flatness of the majority of the continent turns out to be of importance to the survival of many plants and animals in times of long droughts, which occur often and irregularly. Because of this overall flatness, any high points, from rock outcrops to desert mountain ranges, tend to collect and store more water for longer periods than the surrounding flat land, where it tends to run off, infiltrate to the deep water table or evaporate within a short time of the end of the rainfall. From rock outcrops to gorges in mountain ranges, the water collected is at least partially protected from the worst of the conditions of the surrounding flat land where any surface water rapidly evaporates.

The plants and animals of Australia have been very strongly influenced by the climate. Both have adapted to survive, as a species if not always as individuals, in very harsh environments in many parts of the continent. The plants of a particular area may have to cope with poor soils, often low and unpredictable water availability, variable climate including droughts of variable and unpredictable length, and occasional floods, and a wide range of temperatures.

The geological feature that influences the climate of Australia most strongly is the absence of sufficiently high mountain ranges west of the Great Dividing Range running north-south near the east cost of the continent. It is not high as mountain ranges go, but is high enough to force winds crossing it to rise high enough to lose some of their moisture as rain, or in the southern states in winter, snow.

Climate change as Australia broke from Antarctica

Prior to the separation of South America and Australia from Antarctica, cold currents flowing along the Antarctic coast were diverted north to the tropics when they struck the west coasts of South America and Australia, returning south to Antarctica after they had been heated by their passage through the equatorial regions, taking that heat south to warm Antarctica. These warming currents were disrupted by the opening of the ocean between Antarctica and South America and Australia, allowing the Polar Regions to become a progressively colder closed climatic system. The southern parts of Australia became cooler, and the latitudinal temperature gradients steepened, and the climatic zones became more pronounced. The movement of Australia north gradually moved the central and northern parts of the continent away from the moist westerly winds, and into the region of the drier, warmer subtropical high pressure systems (Bowler, 1982; Bowman, 2000).

The zone is dominated by the belt  of high pressure around the Earth, composed of series of high pressure systems that move from west to east near the latitude of 30o S that is about 3,000 km wide. In summer these high pressure systems cover the southern parts of the continent and by winter they have moved north to the central regions. The area they cover at any particular time experiences mostly clear skies, the descending air being dry. The increasing aridity of the Australian continent as it moved north is a result of this dry air.

A band or westerly winds is located immediately to the south of the high pressure zone. Fronts and depressions in this band of westerly winds are areas where the air pressures are locally lower, the air in the lower atmosphere converging and ascending, any contained water vapour then condenses as the rising air mass cools, which occurs as it rises, until the water coalesces into rain drops which fall as rain when they reach a sufficient mass to overcome the updraft tending to push them higher. In the winter rain parts of southern Australia it is these mid-latitude systems that bring the rain, usually moving from west to east.

The southeast trade winds occur immediately to the north of the high pressure belt. These winds converge with the northeast trades of the Northern Hemisphere to form the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), a belt where the rising warm air containing large amounts of moisture lead to the heavy rain of the tropics. The ITCZ moves from north to south of the equator in the Australian summer and back again in the Australian winter, as it tracks the movements of the sun in relation to the Earth, being over the latitudes of northern Australia in the Southern Hemisphere summer and over the areas to the north of the Equator in the Australian winter. During summer there is a low pressure trough that remains continuously over northern Australia, the monsoon season that is hot and wet. The southeast trade winds can bring rain to the east coast of the continent at any time of the year, the moist air rising to cross the Great Dividing Range, which runs the full length of the continent, from Cape York to Tasmania, the moisture being condensed into rain as the air rises. The amount of rain brought by these winds is the result of the water temperature along the east coast of the continent, the warmer the water the higher the evaporation rate and the warmer the air the more water vapour it can hold, hence the potential problems when the oceans are warming.

Both the tropical and mid-latitudes are subject to substantial variability, many rainy weather types being recognised. In the tropical north cyclones often bring heavy rain to the northern coast, in the south, in addition to the normal frontal systems, low pressure systems that originate in the mid-latitudes can be cut-off from the westerlies, often moving slowly while dumping large amounts of rain. The presence of hills or ranges in an area influences the rain it receives from rain-bearing winds, depending on the direction of flow of the winds in relation to the high ground. In southeastern Australia the western slopes of high ground receive much of their rain from bands of cloud ahead of northwesterly fronts.

The moist southwesterly streams following fronts bring rain to western Tasmania, southern Victoria and the far southwest of Western Australia. Low pressure systems, which can originate in either tropical or mid-latitude regions, situated off the east coast can bring heavy rain to the east coast of New South Wales via the associated onshore easterlies.

In the arid interior of the continent rainfall is usually connected with strong tropical systems that penetrate southward or the passage of strong fronts and in winter by 'cut-off' lows.

Variability of the climate

The Byrd Ice Core, the first ice core to be drilled to bedrock in Antarctica, through 2,164 m of ice, 99 % of the core being recovered, was drilled through the ice at Byrd Station, Antarctica. It contained a record of atmospheric concentrations of methane that provided a picture of the fluctuations of global climate through much of the last glacial cycle (Blunier & Brook, 2001). The high concentrations are believed to have been from warm, wet periods, when methane is believed to have been produced in tropical wetlands that would be expanding at these times. The evidence from this core confirms the results from other lines of evidence that during the last glacial cycle there were many short-term fluctuations on scales of about 1,000 years. These fluctuations were most dramatic in the middle part of the last cycle, settling down as the LGM (last glacial maximum) approached, so that the climate was very stable between about 28,000 to 20,000 years ago. Sediment cores from the lake bed that formed on the Carpentaria Plain at times of low sea level also show a climatically calm period at the LGM, the fine structure of the sediments indicating that there were few intense storms to disturb them as they were being deposited (De Dekker, 2001). Reconstructions of sea surface temperatures of the ocean around Australia indicate there was little variation of temperature between seasons, seasonal variability being less than at present (Barrows & Juggins, 2005).

  1. A 950 Year Reconstruction of Temperature from Duckhole Lake, southern Tasmania
  2. A 6,000 Year Record of Tropical Cyclones in Western Australia
  3. The 100,000 Year Problem and the Synchronisation of the Climate System to Eccentricity Forcing
  4. The 8,200 Year Event - Links East Asian Monsoon & Climate of the North Atlantic
  5. 8.2 ka Event from Greenland Ice Core
  6. Amundsen Sea Shelf Break – Oceanographic Observations
  7. Abnormal Upwelling and Concentration of Chlorophyll-a off South Vietnam in August 2007
  8. Abrupt Change in Atmospheric Co2 During the Last Ice Age
  9. Abyssal Ocean Warming and Salinification Following Weddell Polynyas in GDFL CM2G Coupled Climate Models
  10. Ancestral East Antarctic Ice Sheet - Anatomy of a Meltwater Drainage System Beneath it
  11. Anomalous Arctic Warming Linked to Reduced North American Terrestrial Primary Productivity
  12. Antarctica Has a Huge Mantle Plume Beneath it, Which Might Explain its High Degree of Instability
  13. Antarctica - Role in Global Environment
  14. Antarctic Bottom Water in the Eastern Weddell Gyre – Remotely induced Warming
  15. Antarctic Bottom Water - Freshening and Warming 1980s-2000s
  16. Antarctic Bottom Water Produced by intense formation of Sea-Ice in the Cape Darnley Polynya
  17. Antarctic Cold Reversal - Glacier Advance in Southern Middle-latitudes
  18. Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Future Changes Under Warming Scenarios – Representation in CMIP5 Climate Models
  19. Antarctic Circumpolar Current - Response to recent Climate change
  20. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - Deep-Time, the Geological Dimension
  21. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - The Holocene
  22. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - Changes During the Instrumental Period
  23. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - Next 100 Years
  24. Antarctic Climate Change During the Last Interglacial and Local Orbital Forcing
  25. Antarctic Ice Sheet – Mass Balance from 1992 to 2017
  26. Antarctic Dry Valleys – Formation of Thermokarst in the McMurdo Dry Valleys
  27. Antarctic Oligocene Glaciation – Early Oligocene Glaciation Preceded by Export of Nutrient-Rich Northern Component Water
  28. Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets - Acceleration of their Contribution to Sea Level Rise
  29. Antarctic Sea Ice
  30. Antarctic Sea Ice Expansion - Important role of Ocean Warming and Increased Ice-Shelf Melt
  31. Antarctic Surface Waters - Abrupt Cooling and Sea Ice Expansion in the Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Sector at 5,000 Cal Yr BP
  32. Antarctica - Persistent Wind Scour influence on Surface Mass Balance
  33. Antarctica - Ice Flow Sensitivity of Pine Island Glacier to Geothermal Heat Flux
  34. Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Balance – 4 Decades 1979-2017
  35. Antarctic Ice Shelves – Response of Pacific-Sector to the El Niρo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)  
  36. Antarctic Glacier Grounding Lines Net Retreat
  37. Antarctica - Larsen C Ice Shelf, Basal Crevasses – Implications of meltwater ponding and Hydrofracture
  38. Antarctica – Larsen C Ice Shelf – Impact on Basal Melting of Tide-Topography Interactions
  39. Antarctica - Larsen C Ice Shelf – In situ Observations of Ocean Circulation Beneath it
  40. Antarctica - Pine Island Glacier, subglacial melt channels & Fracture in Floating Part
  41. Antarctica - Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, Sustained Glacier Retreat
  42. Antarctica – Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica, Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Underway
  43. East Antarctica - Abrupt Climate Warming in the Early Holocene
  44. East Antarctic Ice Sheet - Dynamic Behaviour During the Pliocene Warmth
  45. East Antarctica - Relative Sea-Level Rise During Oligocene Glaciation
  46. Extratropical Explosive Volcanic Eruptions – Climate Forcing is Disproportionally Strong
  47. Antarctic and Greenland Ice Cores Directly Linked at the Toba Eruption - 74 ka BP
  48. West Antarctic Ice Sheet – Microbial Oxidation as Methane Sink Beneath WAIS
  49. The West Antarctic Ice Shelf warming from beneath
  50. West Antarctica - Recent Changes in Climate and Ice Sheet Compared to the Past 2000 Years
  51. Antarctic Sea-Ice Expansion - Important role of Ocean Warming and Increased Ice-Shelf Melt
  52. Antarctic Weathering and Carbonate Compensation at the Transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene
  53. Aptian Mystery Solved – Ontong Java Plateau Eruption Suggested to Have Promoted Climate Change and Ocean Anoxia Expansion
  54. Anthropogenic Contributions to the Australian Record Summer Temperatures of 2013
  55. Arctic Melting of Sea Ice in Summer – Role of Polar Anticyclones and Middle Latitude Cyclones
  56. Arctic Methane
  57. Arctic Methane Release – Global Impact
  58. Arctic Sea Ice Heated from Below
  59. Arctic Surface Snowpacks - Molecular Bromine, Photochemical Production
  60. Arctic Warm Event – Exceptional Air Mass Transport and Dynamical Drivers of Extreme Wintertime Warm Event in the Arctic
  61. Arctic Warming – 2 Distinct Influences on Cold Winters Above North America and East Asia
  62. Arid Australia - a Fresh Framework for its Ecology
  63. Asian Connections
  64. Arctic Surface Snowpacks - Molecular Bromine, Photochemical Production
  65. Atlantic Ocean CO2 uptake reduced by weakening meridional overturning circulation (AMOC)
  66. Atlantic Ocean - Northeast Circulation Impacted by Mesoscale Polar Storms
  67. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) - Driving Processes
  68. Atlantic Ocean - Multiple Causes for Equatorial Surface Interannual Temperature Variability
  69. Atlantic Ocean Overturning Circulation – Observed Fingerprint of a Weakening
  70. Atlantic Ocean - Tropical Warm Events
  71. Atlantic Overturning Circulation – Recent Slowing as a Recovery from Earlier Strengthening
  72. Atlantic Overturning Estimates at 25oN – Impacts of Atmospheric Reanalysis Uncertainty
  73. North Atlantic Climate During the Last Glacial Period - Links with Tropical Rainfall
  74. North Atlantic Forcing of Amazonian Precipitation During the Last Ice Age
  75. North Atlantic Millennial-Scale Climate Variability - A 0.5 My Record
  76. North Atlantic Stadials Linked to Failure of the Deglacial Indian Monsoon by Surface Cooling in the Indian Ocean
  77. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - A 300-Million-Year record from Plant Cuticles
  78. Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations Over the Last 800,000 Years with a Constant Lower Limit
  79. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels from the Distant Past to the Present
  80. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Linked to Climate Change in the Mesozoic and Early Cainozoic
  81. Atmospheric Methane Evolution the Last 40 Years
  82. Atmospheric Rivers in Proximity to Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones in October, 2010 – the Development and Evolution of 2 Atmospheric Rivers
  83. Atmospheric Susceptibility to Wildfire - the Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene
  84. Austral Summer Teleconnections of Indo-Pacific Variability - Nonlinearity and Impacts on the Climate of Australia
  85. Australian Heatwaves in the 21st century – More frequent, Longer and Hotter
  86. Australian Summer Rainfall – Breakdown of Relationship with ENSO Resulting from Warming of Tropical Indian Ocean SST
  87. Australian regional rainfall decline has been attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and ozone
  88. Australian Temperate Zone Climate Records for the Past 30,000 years – Oz-INTIMATE Workgroup
  89. Bψlling Transition – Global climate Changes Near-Synchronous in Ice Core Record
  90. The Unique Influence of Australia on the Global Sea Level in 2010-2011
  91. Biocrust-Forming Mosses – Mitigating Negative Impacts on Dry-Land Ecosystem Multifunctionality of Impacts of Increasing Aridity
  92. Biotic Homogenisation is Promoted by Gains of Native Species Over 4 Decades in a Human-Dominated Landscape
  93. Brinicles
  94. Temperature Variability on a continental scale over the Past 2 Millennia
  95. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle - Fingerprints of Changes in Response to Large Ocean Circulation Reorganisation
  96. Enriched Carbon Source Detected in the Deep Mantle
  97. Carbon Dioxide – Continental shelves as a Variable Though Increasing Sink for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
  98. Carbon Dioxide Levels Will Alter the Protein, Micronutrients, and Vitamin Content of Grains of Rice with Potential Consequences for the Health of the Poorest Rice-Dependent Countries
  99. Carbon Fluxes from Land to Ocean - Anthropic Perturbations
  100. Carbon Release Rate at Present are Unprecedented During the Last 66 Million Years
  101. Carbon Sequestration in Deep Atlantic During Last Glaciation
  102. Marine Carbon Sequestration – Substantial Role of Macroalgae
  103. Carnian Humid Episode, Late Triassic – A Review
  104. Central Western Antarctica - One of the world's Most Rapidly Warming Regions
  105. Climate - The Atlantic Ocean
  106. Climate - The Pacific Ocean
  107. Climate Change - The Atlantic Ocean
  108. Sea Surface Temperature in the Long-term and Climate Change in the Australian and New Zealand region
  109. Centennial Retreat of Glaciers - Categorical Evidence of Climate Change
  110. Climate Change
  111. Climate Change in Australia - Vertebrates of Quaternary Rainforests Response
  112. Cooper Creek - Climate Change and Aeolian-Fluvial Interaction and Development of Source-Bordering Dunes over the Past 100 ka
  113. Climate - multiple controls
  114. Climate Change - Patterns of Tropical Warming
  115. Climate Change and Variability on a Milankovitch scale - Its Impact on Monsoonal Australasia in the Late Quaternary
  116. Climate Change Science – Attribution of Causes
  117. Climate Change Science - The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Study – BEST
  118. Climate Change Science - The Effects of Rising Temperatures on Human Health
  119. Climate Change Science – Energy Budget of the Earth – the Basics
  120. Climate Change Science – Energy Imbalance of the Earth
  121. Climate Change Science – Human Activities and Global Warming
  122. Climate Change Science - Increasing Temperature of the Ocean
  123. Climate Change Science – Land Temperatures – Boreholes
  124. Climate Change Science – Melting Ice
  125. Climate Change Science – Permafrost, Methane and Clathrates
  126. Climate Change Science - Plant and Animal Migration
  127. Climate Change Science - Radiation Laws Affecting the Earth
  128. Climate Change Science – Rising Sea Levels
  129. Climate Change Science – Trends
  130. Climate Change - The Roles of Physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer
  131. Climate Change - Slow Feedbacks
  132. Climate Change - Very Rapid Changes
  133. Climate Controls of the Present in the Southwest Pacific
  134. Climate Emergency - Introduction
  135. Climate Feedback
  136. Climate Variability - Natural Modes
  137. Climate Variability on a Millennial Scale During the 2 past Glacial Periods
  138. Climate Sensitivity to Cumulative Carbon Emissions Due to Ocean Heat and Carbon Uptake
  139. Convective and Stratiform Precipitation – Proportions Revealed in Water Isotope Ratio
  140. Cooling of Eurasian Winters Over Last 25 Years Not Likely to Be Due to Loss of Arctic Sea-Ice
  141. East Siberian Arctic Shelf Waters Acidification by Freshwater Addition and Terrestrial Carbon
  142. Projected Timing of the Departure of Climate from Recent Variability
  143. Transient Climate Response – Declining Uncertainty as CO2 Forcing Dominates Climate Change into the Future
  144. Drought, Groundwater Storage and Declining Stream Flow in Southwestern Australia
  145. Drought that Can’t be Seen 
  146. Polar Amplification of Climate Change Confirmed by the Warmth of the Arctic in the Last Interglacial
  147. Climate Networks Evolving 
  148. Climate Swings of the Pleistocene in Australia
  149. The Cryogenian
  150. Calibrating the Cryogenian
  151. The Cryogenian Datangpo Formation, South China - Reconstruction of Palaeo-Redox Conditions and Early Sulphur Cycling
  152. Cryogenian-Ediacaran Transition - Organic Carbon Isotope Constraints on the Dissolved Organic Carbon (Doc) Reservoir
  153. Late Cryogenian – Extreme Ocean Anoxia Recorded in Reefal Carbonates in Southern Australia
  154. Cryogenian Glaciation - Onset of Carbon-Isotope Decoupling
  155. Glacier Changes in Asia
  156. The Trezona δ13C Anomaly Beneath the Glaciation of the End-Cryogenian - Constraints of the Origin and Relative Timing
  157. The Cryosphere
  158.  Cryosphere Climate Links
  159. The Cryosphere - Biosphere Interactions
  160. The Cryosphere - The Geography of Snow and Ice on Earth
  161. The Cryosphere - Glaciers & Ice Sheets
  162. The Cryosphere - Albedo of Snow and Ice
  163. The Cryosphere - Effects on the Hydrological Cycle
  164. The Cryosphere - Interaction between Ocean and Ice  
  165. The Cryosphere - Influence on Circulation of the Atmosphere
  166. The Cryosphere - As a Latent Energy Buffer
  167. The Cryosphere - Permafrost
  168. Dansgaard-Oeschger Events – Global Atmospheric Teleconnections During Such Events
  169. Decoupling of Air-Sea Temperature in Western Europe During the Interglacial-Glacial Transition
  170. Deep-sea CaCo3 sedimentation - Response to Shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)
  171. Deglacial Warming – Oceanic Denitrification Acceleration
  172. Drought, Groundwater Storage and Declining Stream Flow in Southwestern Australia
  173. Early Eocene Carbon Isotope Excursions – Evidence from the Terrestrial Coal Seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China
  174. Early Triassic Climate
  175. Ediacaran Outgassing – Evidence for a Spike in Outgassing of Carbon from the Mantle in the Ediacaran
  176. El Niρo – Amplification by Cloud Long-Wave Coupling to Circulation of the Atmosphere
  177. El Niρo/Southern Oscillation Influence on tornado and hail frequency in the United States
  178. A World that has Warmed by 2oC Will Not Be Safe For the European Alps Ecosystem System Services
  179. Late Permian Mass Extinction - Recovery Impeded by Multiple Greenhouse Crises in the Early Triassic
  180. Early Triassic - the Smithian - Lethally Hot Temperatures
  181. East Antarctic Ice Sheet - Initiation and Instability
  182. Elatina Formation
  183. Eemian Interglacial Reconstruction from a folded Greenland Ice Core
  184. End-Permian Mass Extinction - climatic and Biotic Upheavals 
  185. Glacial-Interglacial Bottom Water Oxygen Content Changes on the Portuguese Margin
  186. Last Glacial to Holocene Dust Changes at Talos Dome, East Antarctica - Interpretations & implications for Atmospheric Variations - Regional to Hemisphere Scales
  187. Glaciation on Baltica in the Late Neoproterozoic - the Timing Constrained by Detrital Zircon from Geochronology in the Hedmark Group, Southeast Norway
  188. Glacial Maximum in Australia
  189. Glaciers – Substantial mass Loss in the Tien Shan over the past 50 Years
  190. Global Drought Changes in the 21st Century – Magnitude and Causes Under a Low-Moderate Emissions Scenario
  191. Global Ocean Climate Change
  192. Global Tidal Impacts Resulting from Large-Scale Ice Sheet Collapses
  193. Global Warming - Patterns of Seasonal Response of Tropical Rainfall
  194. Global Warming - the Difficulty of Recovering from Dangerous Levels
  195. Global Warming Hiatus – Distinct Energy Budgets for Anthropogenic and Natural Changes
  196. Greenland – Extreme Temperature Events in Observations and the MAR Climate Model
  197. Greenland Ice Flow for the international Polar Year 2008-2009
  198. Greenland Ice Sheet – Melting at the Base Explained by the History of Iceland Hotspot
  199. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Melt Amplified by Snowline migration and bare Ice Exposure
  200. Greenland Ice Sheet – Velocity Structure Changes
  201. Greenland’s Marine Terminating Glaciers – Changes to Understanding the Dynamic Response to Oceanic and Atmospheric Forcing
  202. West Greenland – Undercutting of Marine-Terminating Glaciers
  203. Northeast Greenland Soils – Net Regional Methane Sink in the High Arctic
  204. Greenland Interstadials and the Younger Dryas-Preboreal Transition: Early-Warning Signals for the Onsets  
  205. Greenland Temperature Anomalies - Origin of Multidecadal to Centennial Scales Over the Last 800 Years  
  206. Groundwater Resources of southwestern Australia Potential Climate Change Impacts
  207. Early Oxidation - great Oxidation Event
  208. Heinrich Events, Massive Detritus Layers from the Late Pleistocene in the North Atlantic -Their Global Climate Imprint
  209. Heinrich Event 4 Characterised in Southwestern Europe by the Use of Terrestrial Proxies
  210. Holocene Changes in Australian-Indonesian Monsoon Rainfall - Stalagmite Evidence from Trace element & Stable Isotope Ratios
  211. Early Holocene – Climatic and Environmental Changes about 11.5-8 cal. ka BP
  212. Hypoxia by degrees - Establishing Definitions for Oceans that are Changing
  213. Kronebreen, Svalbard – Effects of Undercutting and Sliding on Calving: a Global Approach
  214. Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and its Modulation of the ENSO-Precipitation Teleconnection
  215. Intensification of Convective Extremes Driven by Interaction Between Clouds
  216. Jakobshavn Isbrae – Acceleration Triggered by Warm Subsurface Ocean Waters
  217. Possible Global Ice Volume Changes and Geomagnetic Excursions and Earth Orbital Eccentricity
  218. Trends in the Global Jet Stream Characteristics Observed in the Latter Half of the 20th Century
  219. Phanerozoic Climate Modes
  220. During the Transition from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Air-Sea Decoupling Occurred in Western Europe
  221. Lake Mixing regimes – Worldwide Alteration in Response to Climate Change  
  222. The Last Glacial Period – Climatic and Environmental Changes 30-20 Cal. ka BP
  223. Last Glacial Period Termination – Climatic and Environmental Changes 20-11.5 Cal. ka BP
  224. Last Glacial Termination Sources of Methane - Measurements of Methane in Greenland Ice
  225. The Last Interglacial – Australian Deserts
  226. The Last Interglacial - lakes and saltlakes
  227. The Last Interglacial – Lake Eyre – A Continental Rain Gauge
  228. The Last Interglacial – Other Inland Lakes
  229. The Last Interglacial – The Arid Rivers
  230. The Last Interglacial – Desert Dunes and Dust
  231. The Last Interglacial – Inland Vegetation
  232. The Last Interglacial – Last of the Dryland Megafauna
  233. The Katapiri Fauna Collapse
  234. Overview – The Desert Before People - Interglacial Landscapes
  235. Landscape of Colonisation
  236. Marine Carbon Sequestration – Substantial Role of Macroalgae
  237. Methane Emissions Proportional to Carbon from Permafrost Thawed in Arctic Lakes Since the 1950s
  238. Methane- Shifting Atmospheric Sources
  239. North Pacific Ocean – Wind vs Eddy-Forced Regional Sea Level Trends and Variability
  240. Northwestern Australia and East Africa – A Deglaciation Event in the Early Permian between these 2 Landmasses
  241. Early Oxidation - Great Oxidation Event (GOE)
  242. Ross Ice Shelf – Basal Melting from the Absorption of Solar Heat in an Ice Front Polynya
  243. Ross Ice Shelf Response to Climate Driven by Tectonic Imprint on Bathymetry of Sea Floor
  244. Seasonal extremes over Australia - Influence of Climate Variability
  245. Southwestern Australia – Rainfall Changes and Their Relationship to the Southern Annular Mode and ENSO
  246. Southern Ocean - Shifting Westerlies
  247. Submarine End Moraines on the Continental Shelf Off NE Greenland - Implications for Lateglacial Dynamics
  248. The Great Oxidation Event - Evolution of Multicellularity Coincided with an Increase of Cyanobacterial Diversification
  249. The Great Oxidation Event - More Oxygen Through Multicellularity
  250. Holocene Western Alps Glacier Culmination - Their hemispheric relevance
  251. Early Holocene Ice-Sheet Decay, Rising Sea Level and Abrupt Climate Change
  252. Hydrogen Peroxide Production by in planktonic microorganisms by UV-B
  253. Ice Age Australia
  254. Jet Stream
  255. NASA aircraft probe Namibian clouds to solve global puzzle ?
  256. Polar Wander Linked to Climate Change
  257. Possible Global Ice Volume Changes and Geomagnetic Excursions and Earth Orbital Eccentricity
  258. Indo-Pacific Warm Pool - Oscillation in its Southern Extent During the Middle Holocene
  259. PETM – Rapid, Sustained Acidification of the Ocean Surface
  260. Short-Lived Halogens – Efficiency at Influencing Climate Through Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
  261. Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum
  262. Terminal Eocene Event
  263. Terminal Miocene Event
  264. Tropical Western Pacific - A 4 Ma record of Thermal Evolution - Implications for Climate Change
  265. Wandering Australia
  266. The West Antarctic Ice Shelf warming from beneath
  267. West Antarctica Warming Rapidly
  268. The Great Journey North
  269. Timeline of Boundaries-Palaeocene to Miocene
  270. The Innamincka Regime
  271. The Potoroo Regime
  272. Australian Palaeoclimate and Palaeogeography for the Tertiary
  273. Australian Palaeoclimate and Palaeobotany for the Tertiary
  274. Cenozoic Carbon Cycle
  275. Cenozoic Climate
  276. Cause of Decoupling Between Solar Radiation and Temperature - the Evidence
  277. Mid-Cretaceous Supergreenhouse - Drastic Shrinking of the Hadley Circulation
  278. Stop-and-Go Deglaciation
  279. Collapse of Prehistoric Aboriginal Society in Northwestern Australia Triggered by an ENSO Mega-Drought 
  280. ENSO - Impact of Maximum Temperature Extremes
  281. ENSO affected by Sothern High Latitude Cooling During the Medieval Period
  282. El Niρo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Dominates Coastal Vulnerability Across the Pacific
  283. Ocean Acidification – Emergence from Pre-Industrial Levels
  284. Oxygen Decline Accelerated in the Tropical Pacific over the Past Decades by Aerosol Pollutants
  285. Palaeocene climate
  286. Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) – Palaeohydrologic Response to Continental Warming, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming
  287. Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)
  288. Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum – 2 Massive Carbon Releases During the Onset of the PETM
  289. Pan-Arctic Melt Onset – Recent Changes from Satellite Passive Microwave Measurements
  290. Permafrost carbon - Catalyst for deglaciation
  291. Permafrost – High Biolability of Carbon in Ancient Permafrost upon Thaw
  292. Pliocene El Niρo-like Atmospheric Circulation in the Western US
  293. Oceans and the Climate
  294. Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - Lithium Isotope Evidence of Enhanced Weathering
  295. Ocean Bottom sinking as a Result of Increasing Mass of Extra Water in the Ocean from Melting Ice Sheets and Glaciers
  296. Ocean-Warming hotspot - Geographic Range Shifts Explained by Species Traits and Climate Velocity
  297. Oligocene Climate
  298. Kimberly Region, Western Australia, Glaciation in the Late Neoproterozoic - an 17O
  299. Marinoan Snowball Earth Glaciation – Ice Sheet Fluctuations that were Orbitally Forced
  300. Methane Leakage over Widespread Areas of the Seafloor on the Atlantic Margin of Northern US
  301. Miocene climate
  302. Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO)
  303. Mini Ice Ages –  Prediction of Solar Activity Cycles on Millennium Time Scale from Principal Component Analysis
  304. Mountain Uplift and Global Cooling
  305. Ningaloo Niρo Related to a Rainfall Predictability Interdecadal Regime Shift in the 1990s
  306. North Tropical Atlantic Surface Temperature a Trigger for ENSO Events
  307. Northwest Australia – Evidence for Synchrony of marine and terrestrial ecosystems that is driven by climate
  308. Northern Hemisphere Ice-Sheet Influences Global Climate Change
  309. Nuccaleena Formation, South Australia - Testing Models for Post glacial Deposition of 'Cap Dolostone'
  310. Oceanic Ice Shelf Melting – the Effect of Basal Channels
  311. The Response of Northern Hemisphere Glaciers to Past Climate Warming
  312. Pangaea in the Early Permian – Biological and Physical Evidence for Extreme Seasonality in Central Pangaea
  313. Patagonian Icefields, South America, Ice Motion 1984-2014
  314. The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) – Shallow Marine Response to Climate Change in Salisbury Embayment, USA
  315. Palaeoproterozoic Ice Houses - Evolution Oxygen-Mediating Enzymes, Late Origin of Photosystem II
  316. Permafrost carbon - Catalyst for deglaciation
  317. Permafrost stores an Amount of Mercury that is Globally Significant
  318. Permian System of Eastern Australia - Atmospheric CO2 Response to Glacial Growth & Decay in Late Palaeozoic Ice Age
  319. Permian & Triassic Greenhouse Crises
  320. Phanerozoic Climate Modes
  321. Phanerozoic Climate Modes - The Cool and Warm Modes
  322. Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf Melt Distributed at Kilometre Scale
  323. Polynyas in the Open Ocean and Southern Ocean Deep Convection
  324. The Invasion of the Land by Plants in the Devonian Caused Climate Change
  325. Tectonism, Climate and Geomorphology
  326. Pliocene climate
  327. Pleistocene Climate
  328. Possible Climate Transitions Resulting from Stratocumulus Deck Breakup Under Greenhouse Warming
  329. Quaternary Climate
  330. Range Increase of Precipitation Between the Wet and Dry Season
  331. Rapid Climate Change Events
  332. Rapid Climate Change Events (RCCEs) "Rickies" in the Holocene
  333. A Rossby Wave Bridge Connecting West Antarctica to the Tropical Atlantic Ocean
  334. Rossby Waves Mediate Impacts on West Antarctic Atmospheric Circulation of Tropical Oceans
  335. Seafloor Grooves Record Sea Level Changes During Ice Ages
  336. Snowball Earth - Atmospheric Hydrogen Peroxide and Oxygenic Photosynthesis Origin
  337. Snowball Earth - an Interglacial? Dynamic Behaviour of Ice in the Chuos Formation, Namibia
  338. Storm activity - the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age
  339. Snowball Earth - Evidence of Low 18O Magmatism During Rifting of a Supercontinent in South China
  340. Snowball Earth – Cooling Following Algal Rise
  341. Snowball Earth - Was it Actually a Profound Wintry Mix
  342. Snowball or Slushball Earth
  343. South Pacific Gyre “Spin-Up” Extending Understanding by Modelling the East Australian Current in a Future Climate
  344. South Pacific Subtropical Decade-Long Warming Detected
  345. Solar Activity – A Prediction that it will Decrease by 60% in the 2030s, ‘Mini Ice Age’ Levels Because Sun is Driven by Double Dynamo
  346. Southern Hemisphere Hadley Cell, Expansion in Response to Forcing by Greenhouse Gas
  347. Southern Ocean Mixed Layer Depths – Assessment in CMIP5 Models: Historical Bias and Response to Forcing
  348. Southern Ocean CO2 Sink Saturation Due to Recent Climate Change
  349. Southern Ocean Eddies Imprint on Winds, Clouds and Rainfall
  350. Stratospheric Polar Vortex Weakenings Induced Hot and Dry Extremes in Australia
  351. Tasman Sea Climate Change Projection from an Eddy-Resolving Ocean Model
  352. Temperature Variability on a continental scale over the Past 2 Millennia
  353. Triassic climates — State of the art and perspectives
  354. The 2oC Climate Change Target – A Scientific Critique
  355. The Southern Ocean - Recent Ventilation Changes
  356. A sulphidic Sea in the Late Archaean Stimulated by Early Oxidative Continental Weathering
  357. Synchronization of cycles in the Arctic and the Antarctic
  358. Teleconnections of Austral Summer in Variability in the Indo-Pacific - Nonlinearity and Impacts on the Australian Climate
  359. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle - Fingerprints of Changes in Response to Large Ocean Circulation Reorganisation
  360. Terrestrial Permafrost – the Threat from Thawing
  361. Toba Eruption 74 ka BP – Direct Linking between Ice Cores from Greenland and Antarctica
  362. Totten Glacier, East Antarctica - Ocean Access to a Cavity Beneath it
  363. Totten Glacier – Inland Bed Erosion Indicates Repeated Retreat on a Large Scale
  364. Totten Ice Shelf Melt and Acceleration caused by Wind
  365. The Younger Dryas
  366. Tidewater Glaciers – Scalings for Submarine Melting from Buoyant Plume Theory
  367. Global Tropical Forests – Seasonality Constrained by Hydroclimate
  368. Early Younger Dryas - Variations of atmospheric 14C Derived from Tree Rings
  369. Volcano-Sedimentary Record of Africa, India and Australia - Evidence of Global and Local Sea Level and Continental Freeboard Changes
  370. Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica – Ice Cavity Water Export
  371. The Wet, Cool Summer in Southeast Australia – 2010-2011
  372. Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica – Heterogeneous Retreat and Ice Melt
  373. Warm Arctic Episodes Linked with Increasing Frequency of Extreme Winter Weather in the US
  374. Western Tibet – Massive collapse of 2 Glaciers in 2016 following Surge-like Instability


The Climate Now

The Australian climate is influenced by several main weather systems related to regular patterns in the oceans and the atmosphere.

Rainfall is brought to northern Australia by the north-west monsoon, and in most years, by cyclones that deliver large amounts of water to mostly coastal areas. Along the east coast rain increases when La Nina is active, when the trade winds in the Pacific ocean push warm water towards the Australian coast, and decreases when El Nino events slow or stop the trade winds, sending the warm water east away from the Australian coast. This is why El Nino brings drought to eastern Australia. It has been assumed that the La Nina events would bring drought-breaking rain to the southern parts of Australia as well. But it has now been realised that this hasn't been happening. While the coasts of New South Wales and Queensland were being deluged by rain brought by La Nina, large areas of Victoria were still in drought.

Queensland weather forecasters have been watching what they believed to be the return of El Nino, but an unexpected finding recently has been that unlike previous El Nino events in which the warm water moves to the east towards South America, it appears that the accumulating warm water stretches across the equatorial Pacific, a confusing situation for forecasters, being unable to predict with confidence what the weather is likely to be, wet or dry.

Indian Ocean Dipole - IOD

Researchers are finding that the trade winds in the Pacific seem to be weakening. If they do weaken further that would lead to a lowering of pressure in the western Pacific, so less power to force the warm water that feeds the Leeuwin Current. They are also seeing what they believe is a change in the IOD that could be leading to a state in which the cool positive phase could be the dominant condition. As if that wasn't enough, the temperatures over Australia have risen by 1o C, drying the continent out even more.

Whether part of a natural cycle or man-made, climate change is beginning to bite in Australia, and the continent is set to be affected more significantly and earlier than other continents. Yet another first for Australia.

Climate Cycles

Tropical Cyclones

Looking at the past to see the future

Climate scientists have been studying ocean sediments searching for C13/C12 isotope ratio anomalies which indicate times when increased amounts of C12-rich carbon is added to the oceans/atmosphere. The correlation of such an anomaly with the Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum about 55 Ma has been found. It is known that there are many places on the continental shelves around the world where there are large deposits of methane clathrate that has the potential to cause catastrophic climate change if released in sufficient quantities over a sufficiently short time.

The Southern Annular Mode (SAM)

This is a weather system based in Antarctica that has been found to affect the climate of southern Australia, by controlling the strength of the westerly winds that cover the ocean to the south of the Southern Hemisphere continents, including Australia. The SAM determines how far north the westerly winds reach, the further north, the greater the winter rainfall over southern parts of Australia.

The belt of strong westerly winds contracts towards Antarctica in the positive part of the cycle, expanding north, hopefully over southern Australia, in the negative mode. In the positive mode there is reduced autumn and winter rainfall over southern Australia, especially the southern part of Western Australia. The resulting higher pressures over the southern parts of Australia lead to fewer storm systems reaching Australia.

This weather pattern has been found to be conspiring with the IOD to bring the long severe drought to southern Western Australia and western Victoria.

Sources & Further reading

  1. Mary E. White, After the Greening, The Browning of Australia, Kangaroo Press, 1994
  2. Chris Johnson, Australia's Mammal Extinctions, a 50,000 year history, Cambridge University Press, 2006
  3. Peter Whetton in Webb, Eric K, (1997), Windows on Meteorology, Australian Perspective, CSIRO Publishing.



  1. Atlantic 'weather bomb' opens new window on Earth's interior
  2. The La Nina of 2010-2011 and its impact on Australia
  3. Climate Code Red - The case for Action at Emergency Speed
  4. Methane Leaks off the East Siberian Coast, Speeding Climate Change
  5. Hey, Permafrost: Put a Lid on It
  6. Ice Once Covered the Equator
  7. LiveScience Image Gallery
  8. Bird Ice Core Microparticle and Chemistry Data
  9. CO2 record in the Byrd ice core 50,000-5,000 BP
  10. Ice Core Paleoclimatology Research Group
  11. Ice-core evidence of abrupt climate changes
  12. A 25,000-Year Tropical Climate History from Bolivian Ice Cores
  13. Abrupt tropical climate change-past and present
  14. Geochronology and stratigraphy of late Pleistocene lake cycles on the southern Bolivian altoplano-implications for causes of tropical climate change
  15. Abrupt Climate Change at the End of the Last Glacial Period Inferred from Tropical Air in Polar Ice
  16. Climate change and the tropical Pacific-the sleeping dragon wakes
  17. Fine-resolution pollen record of late-glacial climate reversal from New Zealand
  18. As climate changes, so do glaciers
  19. Global enhancement of ocean anoxia during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2-a quantitative approach using U isotopes
  20. Clouds may hold the key to why the early earth didn't freeze over
  21. Quiet sun puts Europe on ice
  22. Glacier melt threatens West Antarctic ice sheet
  23. Global Warming Part 1 - Ignore the debate, look at the Earth
  24. Holocene Palaeoceanography, Bay of Biscay, Evidence of west-east links in the North Atlantic from dynocyst data
  25. Climate Kelpie
  26. Wind speed and ocean wave height rising
  27. Cosmic Rays and Climate 
  28. Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?
  29. Supporting Material for Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?
  30. Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? + Supplementary Material
  31. PETM Weirdness
  32. A millennial proxy record of ENSO and eastern Australian rainfall from the Law Dome ice core, East Antarctica
  33. Evolving Climate Networks
  34. Rapid Variability of Seawater Chemistry Over the Past 130 Million Years
  35. Evidence of Recent Causal Decoupling between Solar Radiation and Global Temperature
  36. Climate change could trigger 'tipping point' for East Antarctica Totten Glacier



Author: M. H. Monroe
Last updated:

Catalyst - 100 years of Australian climate records


Aridification of Australia
Glacial Maximum
Runaway Greenhouse
Ice Ages
Climate cycles
Global warming to global freezing
Indian Ocean Dipole-IOD
Late Carboniferous Glaciation
Carboniferous Glaciation
Precambrian Ice Age
Early Palaeozoic Icehouse
Pleistocene Ice Age
Aerobacter spp. and cloud formation
Terminal Eocene Event


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