Australia: The Land Where Time Began

A biography of the Australian continent 


Acanthostega – Feeding biomechanics Across the Fish-Tetrapod Transition
Acanthostega, a Stem Tetrapod – Life History Revealed by Synchrotron microtomography
Amphibian Origins - Emerging onto a Tangled Bank
Animal Body Fossil in Pre-Marinoan Limestone from South Australia (Possible?)
Acute Vision in Anomalocaris – Origin of compound eyes
A Suspension-Feeding Anomalocaridid from the Early Cambrian
New Anatomical Information on Anomalocaris – Emu Bay Shale, South Australia
Anomalocaridid Hurdia from the Burgess Shale - Its Significance for the Euarthropod Evolution
Anomalocaris Canadensis Morphology from the Burgess Shale
Antarctic Krill – Their Importance in Biogeochemical Cycles
Ants in Tropical Savannas
Arid Zone Fauna
Aquatic Food Webs in Turbid Arid-Zone Rivers
Arcadia Formation
Archaea and Bacteria - Their Macroecological Drivers in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems
Aspidella, from the Ediacaran Abut 560 Ma - Evidence for Cnidaria-Like Behaviour
Aspidella, Form genus from the Ediacaran – Morphology and Taphonomy
Australasian Biogeography - Conclusions
Australian Biogeography
Australian Dinosaurs
Australian Local Faunas
Australian Mammals
Australian rodents
Evolution of Avian Reproductive Behaviour - Preserved Avian Ovarian Follicles
Bilaterian Animals with Complex Behaviours from the Ediacaran - Trace Fossil Evidence

Bilaterian – Oldest Specimen Found in the Ediacaran of South Australia

Biogeography of Australia

Biogeography of Australia – Distribution within Australia
Biogeography of Australia – Distribution in and Around the Tasman Region
Biography - Evolution and Ecology - Darwinian and neo-Darwinian Models
Biogeography of Australia – Northwestern Australia
Biogeography of Australia – Panbiogeography, Tectonics and Evolution
Bioturbation Through the Early Palaeozoic – Protracted Development
Bird Evolution – Bone Growth
Blina Shale
Cambrian Explosion
Cambrian Explosion - Annelida
Cambrian Explosion - Archaeocyathids,  'ancient cusps'
Cambrian Explosion - Assemblage Types that are Characteristic
Cambrian Explosion - the Ediacaran-Cambrian Metazoan Diversification - Ecological Drivers
Prominent Isotope Excursions on a Global Scale Just Prior to the Cambrian Explosion
Cambrian Explosion - Fossils of the Explosion with Bilateral Body Plans
Cambrian Explosion - Branches that Link Lobopoda and Crown Arthropoda
Cambrian Explosion - Chancellorida
Cambrian Explosion - Chaetognatha
Cambrian Chengjiang Biota, South China – Geochronological Constraint
Cambrian Explosion - Cnidaria
Cambrian Explosion - Ctenophora
Cambrian Explosion - Deuterostomes: Chordata
Cambrian Explosion - Disparity
Cambrian Explosion - Diversity
Cambrian Explosion - Other Possible Deuterostomes
Cambrian Explosion - Echinodermata
Cambrian Explosion - The Ediacaran-Cambrian Metazoan Diversification - Ecological Drivers
Cambrian Explosion - Ecdysozoans
Cambrian Explosion - General Patterns
Cambrian Explosion - Hemichordata - Ambulacraria
Cambrian Explosion - Mollusca
Cambrian Explosion - Lobopodians and Onychophora
Cambrian Explosion - Lophophorata
Cambrian Explosion - Lophotrochozoans: Spiralia
Cambrian Explosion - Metazoan Architectures
Cambrian Explosion - Early Metazoan Grades and Clades – Fossil Representatives
Cambrian Explosion - Other Likely Spiralians
Cambrian Explosion - Morphology of Cambrian Lobopodian Eyes from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte and Their Evolutionary Significance
Cambrian Explosion -New Dates
Cambrian Explosion - Palaeoscolecidae
Cambrian Explosion - Panarthropoda - Arthropoda Evolution
Cambrian Explosion - Fossils – “Radiate” Metazoan Body Plans
Cambrian Explosion - Scalidophora
Cambrian Explosion - Scyphozoan Olivooides from the Early Cambrian – Embryos, Polyps and Medusae
Çambrian Explosion - Small Shelly Fossils
Cambrian Explosion - Sponges
Cambrian Explosion Triggers – Hypotheses and Problems
Cambrian Marine Shelfal Settings – Widespread mixing in the Early to Middle Cambrian
Cephalochordates - Lancelets 
Chengjiang Fossil Site - China
Conodont-Vertebrate Phylogenetic Relationships Revisited
Cuddie Springs and Pleistocene Fauna – Extinction not by Overkill
Tethys Ocean - Valley of Whales
Climate Change in Australia - Vertebrates of Quaternary Rainforests Response
Cloghnan Shale southwest of Forbes, Late Devonian
Cooper Creek Food Web
Cretaceous - late, Dinosaurs
Crocodiles see Riversleigh Crocodiles
Dasyurids see Riversleigh Dasyurids
Deuterostome Relationships
Devonian – The Earliest Body Fossils of Tetrapods
Devonian – Fish Faunas of the Late Devonian
The Devonian Period
Devonian – Tetrapod Trackways
The Devonian World – Early Evolution of Plants and Animals
The Devonian World – Biogeography and Climate
Early to Middle Devonian – Plants and Animals
The Developmental Evolution of Bodyplans - The Fossil Evidence
Dinosaur Evolution
Dinosaur Ants
Dinosaurs After the Mesozoic
Dinosaurs - Sauropod Necks
Dinosaur ancestors
Dinosaur Behaviour - Brain, Nerves and Intelligence
Dinosaur Behaviour - Reproduction
Dinosaur Behaviour - Social Activities
Dinosaur Biology - General Anatomy
Dinosaur Biology - Skin, Feathers and Colour
Dinosaur Biology - Respiration and Circulation
Dinosaur Biology - Digestive Tract
Dinosaur Biology - Senses 
Dinosaur Biology - Pathologies
Dinosaur Biology - Vocalisation
Dinosaur Energetics
Dinosaur Growth
Dinosaur or Bird
Dinosaur Sites
Dinosaur Trackways in Australia
Dinosaurs - Gigantism
Dinosaurs - Late Cretaceous
Dinosaurs - Characteristics distinguishing dinosaurs from other archosaurs  
Dinosaurs - Sauropods
Diprotodontoids see Riversleigh Diprotodontoids
Diversity and Species Abundance Patterns of the Early Cambrian - (Series 2, Stage 3), Chengjiang Biota, China
Deinonychus – Predatory Ecology and the Origin of Flapping Birds
End Triassic Mass Extinction - hydrogen sulphide poisoning
Earliest Known Terrestrial Forelimbs - Contrasting Developmental trajectories
Early Chordates
A Tetrapod Fauna of the Sydney Basin, Permian
Earliest Tetrapods, Origin from Marine Environment
Elpistostege, step by step Towards a Tetrapod Skull
Emergence of Early Tetrapods
An Early Tetrapod from Romer’s Gap
The Ediacaran-Cambrian Metazoan Diversification - Ecological Drivers
Ediacaran Bilaterian Animals – Trace Fossil Evidence of Complex Behaviours
Comment on “Trace fossil evidence for Ediacaran bilaterian animals with complex behaviors”
Reply to comment on “Trace fossil evidence for Ediacaran bilaterian animals with complex behaviors”
Ediacaran-Cambrian Transition - Decoupling of Body Plan Diversification and Ecological Structuring: Evolutionary and Geobiological Feedbacks
Ediacaran Fauna (connection with Acraman Impact Zone)
Ediacaran Life on Land
Ediacaran Life on Land - a critique
Ediacaran Life on Land - Critique2
Ediacaran-Type Fossils in Sediments from the Cambrian
Ektopodontids see Riversleigh Ektopodontids
Elpistostege, step by step Towards a Tetrapod Skull
Emu Bay Fossils
End-Permian Mass Extinction - climatic and Biotic Upheavals
End Permian Mass Extinction Confirmed to have Resulted from Voluminous Magmatism Before, During and After Extinction Event
Epibolic Gastrulation from the Early Cambrian - the Kuanchuanpu Member, Dengying Formation, Ningqiang, Shaanxi, South China
Eurypterid see Gogo Formation
Exploring the Aftermath of the Cambrian Explosion - The Evolutionary Significance of Marginal- to Shallow Inchnofaunas of Jordan
Extant Phylogenetic Bracket (EPB)
Extinction events - Periodicity
Feathered Dinosaurs and Early Birds – Coevolution with Feathers and Metabolism Revealed by Fossilised Skin
Feathertail Possums see Riversleigh Feathertail Possums
From Fins to Fingers
Fish Origins
Fish of the Tethys Ocean
Fish to Amphibians
Fish to Amphibians - The Origin of the Tetrapod Stem Group – Climate Change in The Devonian and breathing
Fish to Tetrapod - Body Scales and Fin Rays – Changes
Fish to Tetrapod - Hox Genes
Fish to Tetrapod - Postcranial Skeleton
Fish to Tetrapod - Tissues and Skeletal Structures
Fish to Tetrapod - Skeletal Changes – Skull and Shoulder Girdle
Fish to Tetrapod - Skeletal Changes –Pelvic Girdle, Limbs and Axial Skeleton
Fossil Ape hints how Bipedal Walking May Have Evolved
Fossil Eyes
Fossil Faunas - Australian Local Faunas
Fossil Sites
Genyornis newtoni Extinction in the Pleistocene - Human Impact on the Australian Megafauna
Gorilla Genome Sequence – Insights into Hominid Evolution
The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) - The Palaeoecological Dimension
Lake Eyre Fauna
Haikouichthys and Related Forms
Hawkesbury Sandstone
Problematic Fossil Horodyskia of Mesoproterozoic Age from Glacier National Park, Montana, USA
Independent Evaluation of Conflicting Microspherule Results from Different Investigations of the Impact Hypothesis for the Younger Dryas
Jawed Vertebrates - Marginal Dentition and Multiple Dermal Jawbones as Ancestral Condition
The Jehol Biota – Early Cretaceous
Jellyfish Anatomy
Jellyfish Anatomy – Benthic Forms
Jellyfish Anatomy – Locomotion Structures
Jellyfish Anatomy – Stinging Cells and Sticky Cells
Jellyfish - The Ocean
Jurassic Fish Faunas of Australia
Kakadu - Small Animals & Fire
Kangaroos - adapting to a drying land - embryonic diapause
Kangaroos - adapting to a drying land - forestomach fermentation
Kangaroos - adapting to a drying land - hopping gait
Kangaroos - Hearing and Vision
Kangaroos - large species
Kockatea Shale
Leigh Creek Coal Measures
Life After Snowball Earth
Mammals as indicators of palaeohabitats
Marsupials see Stripe-faced dunnart
Marsupial Megafauna Extinction
Marsupial vs Placental
Marsupial Origins
Marsupial Origins - An alternative View
Marsupial Reproductive Pattern Classification
Marusek Hypothesis - End Permian mass extinction
Pleistocene Megafauna Extinctions – Legacy on Nutrient Availability in Amazonia
Mass Extinctions
Microbial Mat – Controls on Abundance and Diversity in Modern Marine Microbialites
Mesozoic Seas – Geographic Extent
Late Permian Mass Extinction - Recovery Impeded by Multiple Greenhouse Crises in the Early Triassic
Ontogeny of Cinctans - Stem Group Echinodermata - Revealed by a New Genus Graciacystis, form the Middle Cambrian in Spain
Organic Carbon Moved from the Ocean Surface to Depth by Daily Vertical Migration of Small Marine Animals
Parareptilia - Colobomycter pholeter, a parareptile from the Early Permian- Plicidentine
Ostracods fossils, Lake George
End-Permian Mass Extinction - climatic and Biotic Upheavals
Pangaea in the Early Permian – Biological and Physical Evidence for Extreme Seasonality in Central Pangaea
Penguin Colonisation of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, Following the Last Glacial-Interglacial transition
Photic Zone Euxinia - Their role in Exceptional Preservation of Fossils Revealed by Biomarkers: An Organic Chemical Perspective
Permian Mass Extinctions
Permian Mass Extinction - Marusek Hypothesis
Permian Extinction Debate
Permian-Triassic Neo-Tethyan Margin of Gondwana – Catastrophic Environmental transition
Permian-Triassic Superanoxic Event - The Preference of Photic Zone Euxinia
Permian-Triassic Crisis - 2 Pulses of Extinction
Some Interesting Fossil Finds From the Non-Marine Permian and Triassic Sequences in Northern Tasmania, Australia
Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary Interval – Occurrence and Form of Shaanxilithes ningqiangensis, an Enigmatic Body Fossil from the Lesser Himalaya, India
Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary Geology, South Australia - Ocean Basin formation, Seawater Chemistry & Organic Evolution
Precambrian Sponges with Cellular Structures
Cambrian Explosion - Prominent Isotope Excursions on a Global Scale Just Prior to the Cambrian Explosion
Nectocaridid Ecology - Cephalopod-like Body Plan, Early Origin, Diversity and Affinity
Newell's Hypothesis
Red Kangaroo
Reproductive strategy for an arid, erratic climate
Riversleigh Arthropods
Riversleigh Fossil Site
Riversleigh Fossil Site Fossils
Riversleigh Frogs
Riversleigh Kangaroos
Riversleigh Koalas
Sauropod Biology – Digestive Physiology and Feeding
Sauropod Biology - Functional Gut Flora – Evidence

Sauropod Biology – What is known?

Sauropod Rib with a Theropod Tooth Embedded in it – Direct Evidence of Feeding Behaviour in the Jehol Group, China
Shield shrimps
A Single-Species Ecosystem Deep Within the Earth Revealed by Environmental Genomics
Slime Moulds
Southern Ocean plankton (now classified as protists)
Snake Origins
Soom Shale - South Africa - Soom Shale Biota
Spiral-Plated Echinoderms from Gondwana in the Cambrian Reveal the Earliest Pentaradial Body Plan
Sponges (Porifera) - Living Metazoans from the Neoproterozoic, Biomineralisation and the Concept of Their Evolutionary Success
Spring Creek Site - Southwestern Victoria   
Spring Creek and Mowbray Swamp – New Dates and XAD-2
Stromatolites from the Neoproterozoic in Glaciogenic Successions, Kimberley Region, Western Australia - Evidence of a Younger Marinoan Glaciation
Palaeozoic Stromatoporoids - Their Taxonomy, Mineralogy and Applications in Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironmental Analysis
Spinifex Hopping-mouse
Talbragar Fish Beds
Talbragar Fish Beds - Insects
Talbragar Fish Beds - Aquatic Invertebrates
Talbragar Fish Faunas - Late Jurassic
Tetrapods – the Environments of Early Tetrapods
Tetrapod Evolution – Origin
Tetrapods – First Feet in the Famennian
Tetrapods – Skulls and Skeletons in Transition
Tetrapods – Their Place of Origin
A Tetrapod Fauna of the Sydney Basin, Permian
Thingodontans (Yalkaparidontids)
Tropical Savannas-Small Mammals & Fire
Tunicates - Urochordates
Tyrannosaurus rex
Tyrannosaurus rex behaviour
Vertebrates - Cambrian
Vertebrates - Earliest
Vertebrate Origins & Development - paedomorphosis
Vetulicolians and Yunnanozoons
New Vetulicolian from Australia – its Bearing on chordate Affinities of an Enigmatic Cambrian Group  
Wianamatta Group
Wildlife of the National Parks
Yookamurra & Scotia, Earth Sanctuaries in the mallee
Xiaotingia zhengi - an Archaeopteryx-like feathered dinosaur that has been proposed to replace Archaeopteryx at the base of the bird line
Cunning Crows

Sources & Further reading


  1. Australian Age of Dinosaurs
  2. The Age of the Megafauna
  3. Australian Beasts
  4. Virtual Fossil Museum – Geologic Time
  5. GSA Geological Time Scale
  6. Nicer neighbourhoods get creepier crawlies
  7. 70 million years later, this duck-billed dinosaur has a diagnosis: septic arthritis
  8. Whollydooleya tomnpatrichorum the Tasmanian devil's bigger, badder cousin
  9. Dinosaur 'tank' still depended on camouflage for protection
  10. Methane-eating bacteria discovered under the Antarctic ice shelf


Author: M. H. Monroe
Last updated: 05/09/2020

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                                                                                           Author: M.H.Monroe  Email:     Sources & Further reading